Adenoids hypertrophy are a patch of tissue that is high up in the throat, just behind the nose. These are part of the lymphatic system. The adenoids and tonsils work by trapping germs coming in through the mouth and nose.
Adenoids usually start to shrink after about age of 5years. By the teenage years, they are almost completely gone. By then, the body has other ways to fight germs. Enlarged adenoids are adenoids that are swollen. It is a common problem in children.
I. Infection is the most common cause. Infectious causes of adenoid hypertrophy include both viral and bacterial pathogens.
II. Non-infectious causes
i. Gastroesophageal reflux
iii. Exposure to cigarette smoke
iv. In adults, adenoid hypertrophy can also be a sign of a more serious condition such as HIV infection, lymphoma, or sino-nasal malignancy.
Symptoms of Adenoids
1. Blocking of nose or stuffy nose
2. Difficulties in breathing through nose (Sleeping with mouth open) 3. Change in tone of voice
4. Noisy breathing
5. Problem in sleeping like difficulty in breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea) and unrefreshed sleep
6. Frequent attack of sinusitis
7. Ear Pain
8. Sore throat or difficulties in swallowing
1. Lateral neck radiograph- Frequently advised imaging study to detect the swelling of adenoids.
2. CT Scan- For the exclusion of other serious neck swellings. Management:-
1. Agraphis Nutans- Deafness due to enlarged adenoids.
2. Baryta Carb – Enlarged adenoids in mentally as well as physically dull and sluggish children. Offensive foot sweat .
3. Calcarea Carb – Enlarged adenoids with tendency to catch cold .Perspiration excessively on the scalp and have a fatty, flabby constitution. He/she may also be highly irritable and obstinate. A desire for indigestible things like chalk, clay, lime is observed in such cases.
4. Merc Sol is well indicated in case of an ear infection associated with enlarged adenoids. Pus-like, thick, yellow, sometimes blood tinged watery discharge from the ear is observed in such cases.
5. Kali Sulphuricum – For adenoids that regrow after surgery
6. Ammonium Carb –For enlarged adenoids with marked nasal block.
7. Tuberculinum and Psorinum- Recurrent infections causing enlarged adenoids
1. Saline water gargles
2. Outdoor activities which incorporates long breathing
3. Steam Inhalation